Project: AgeingTimeUse, Horizon 2020 ERC
Using the ATUS-X visualizer can substantially reduce the exploratory analysis with time-use diaries.
For example, tempograms in the figure below show the daily routines of a sample of female and male family caregivers. It shows that a higher percentage of women spend time on housework during the daytime than men (the area covered by the housework activities is larger on the left-side graph than on the right-side graph). Analogously, a higher percentage of men spend time watching TV in the evenings and during the daytime than women on an average day.
The figure below shows the number of women (left) and men (right) performing adult care (top) and childcare (bottom). The distributions’ shapes and the total number of observations (out of the initial weighted 800 random observations) are similar among women and men for adult care. In contrast, for childcare, the distributions are denser, and numbers are higher among women than men caregivers. The figure suggests that more women than men are likely to provide childcare, especially during the daytime. The figures also illustrate that adult care is likely to peak in the morning hours, whereas childcare is higher in the evenings. This may be because more support is available for childcare (including nurseries and schools) during the daytime compared to supports for adult care in the US.
The final figure describes how total time is distributed separately for all men and women in the sample who provide adult care and who have one or more children under 18 in the household (i.e., sandwich caregivers). Although women spent a little more time on sleep, they spent considerably less time than men watching TV (7.26% vs. 8.11%) and on general leisure activities (9.64% vs. 11.49%). Women also spend less time on paid work (10.47% vs. 16.69%) and more on housework (12.21% vs. 8.63%) and childcare (5.91% vs. 2.8%). The gender differences among sandwich caregivers reflect the gender disparities in the general population. Both women and men who are sandwich caregivers spend similar amounts of time on adult care and travel.